Prologue;        The Talmud (Berachos 26b) notes that Avraham set up the Tefillas Shachris. This is based upon the Possuk that notes that Avraham returned to the same place that he had stood in the presence of Hashem (Berashit 19:27). The Talmud notes that Yitzchak set up Mincha and Yaakov Maariv. But why was Avraham able to come up with the concept of Shachris
and not that of Mincha or Maariv?  Could it be assumed that one only needs to supplicate his master at the start of his day?

        Rav Menachem Tzvi Taksen (Ohr Yikrat, Berachot 26b) noted that each of the Avot had to set up his particular Tefillah. 

        We are aware of the Ramban who notes that the Maaseh Avot are a Siman L'Banim (the actions of the forefathers serve as a guide for the children) .The Midrash notes that Avraham's life was set for  historical reference from the birth of the nation until the end of the first temple era. Yitzchak's life served as a guide for the second temple era and Yaakov's life continues to be our guide for the current exile until we get back to the land of Israel fully. 

        We are also aware that Hashem relates with the world in two manners: He can come out revealing his full splendor or he can allow the world to function according to natural law. When we consider these factors, we find that Hashem has utilized these different relationships with the Jewish nation throughout our history. When the nation left Mitzrayim (The Avraham years), Hashem's involvement in the nation was like the rising sun, full of force. For this type of generation, Avraham set up
Shachris, a full descriptive prayer to the open power of Hashem.  

        During the middle period, the second temple era, the hand of God was less apparent. For this generation, the Tefilla of choice was the Tefillat Yitzchak - a short tefillah to stand off the downward spiral and an included Techina to Hashem to keep us close to him as we feel our relationship with him becoming less apparent and more hidden.

        Finally, following the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash and the subsequent Galus, "the Yaakov period", a new tefilla needed to be prescribed. This tefilla would recognize the Shmia of Hashem even in the darkest moments and would highlight the needs for Geula. Hence,  Maariv was in order.  Maariv, according to the Talmud Ein Lah Keva  -- this part of history has no absolute definitive end. We can hasten the Maariv of Jewish history by taking control of our relationship with Hashem and
attempting to find and appreciate him and our connection to him. By doing so, the sun will shine again and a new dawn can begin.

Hashkama Minyan: Halacha or horror

        The Rema (Orach Chaim 281) notes that there is a custom to delay the Davening times more than one does during the week. The source for this Psak seems to be a Mordechai in Shabbat (398) who notes that the  daily Korbanot were specifically gear for "BaBoker Baboker" - the morning time. The Korban of Shabbos was limited to "B'Yom Hashabbat" - some later point.
The Mordechai notes that this is Rav hai Gaon's source for davening later on Shabbos.

        The Radvaz (Shut Radvaz II:614) notes that indeed the Possuk of Shabbos speaks to the Mussaf Korban. However, since it connects to the Tamid of the day, it seems that even Shachris should be later on Shabbos. However, the Radvaz notes that he personally detests the Minhag of davening later on Shabbos and applies the term Zrizin Makdimim L'Mitzvot to davening early on Shabbos.

        The Mogen Avraham (O.C. 281:1) quotes the Bach who says the reason for the later davening is that Sheina B'Shabbat Taanug  -- it is part of Oneg Shabbat to sleep on Shabbat. However, he notes that in the winter, the logic of the Bach is irrelevant. However, if we apply the Bach's reasoning, we do not have a problem of Zirizin Makdimim simply because he is fulfilling the Mitzva of Oneg Shabbos at that time (Shut Divrei Yisroel I:84)

        R. Chaim Palagi (Ruach Chaim, 281) notes that the Tanna d'Bei Eliyahu specifically notes that one should come to Shul EARLY on Shabbos. Similarly, the Talmud (Megilla 23a) notes that we are to come to Shul early on Shabbos. Rashi adds that this means that one should come early enough to Daven Vasikin. How does the Rema possibly deal with this problem of ignoring the Talmud? Even the Rambam (Teshuvos 118) notes the importance of Davening Vasikin on   Shabbos?!

        The Aruch Hashulchan (O.C. 281:1) suggests that the Talmud was contrasting Shabbos to Yom Tov and that Davening when on Yom Tov should actually be later than on Shabbos in order to prepare the meal properly. However, Rashi's specificity of davening Vasikin on Shabbos seems to negate this position.

        An interesting solution to this problem is posed by the Sefer Tikkun Chatzot (21). He suggests that whereas during the week, especially in the winter, people who work are often called upon to Daven at ungodly hours prior to Vasikin, relying on a Kula, the Shabbat situation is different. When one need not go to wok, like on Shabbat, he should start Davening a little later, allowing  people to Daven "L'Chatchila" by making the Vasikin time no matter when it is. This is also the view of the Beis Meir.

        L'Halacha, the Mishna Berurah suggests aiming for Vasikin Davening even on Shabbos. Yalkut Yosef adds that although both of these positions (Vasikin or davening later) have legitimacy, one must be careful NEVER to allow Minyanim to miss the prescribed times for Kriyat Shema and Shemonah Esrai.

Shabbat Shalom